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First, Turkish aid developed in an erratic rather than in a linear way. That is, the Turkish public donates money to the government for humanitarian purposes. These private contributions are collected through government-organized TV shows, so called telethons , and public announcements inviting donations, both of which measures are always remarkably successful. Moreover, Turkish socio-political culture historically favours a large public sector over civil society engagement.
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As Figure 3. Therefore, whether the Turkish government can sustain or further increase its current aid levels depends to a significant degree on the willingness of the Turkish people to donate. Despite this strong focus on unilateral aid, Turkey also gives multilaterally. According to an interviewee, WFP also purchases five percent of its food products in Turkey. Meier and Murthy, Incidentally, recipient countries of Turkish humanitarian aid are predominantly Muslim.
Does this lead to a partiality towards Muslim victims or towards a specific branch of Islam within a given crisis? There is no evidence that would support such a suspicion, and the Turkish government clearly states that it does not provide aid on the basis of religious affiliation. However, it is worth noting that the key crises that exemplify Turkish humanitarian assistance — Bosnia, the Kashmir earthquake, the plight of the Rohingya in Myanmar, Somalia, and Syria — all are crisis situations that were and are marked by limited Western efforts to find effective political solutions or sufficient humanitarian assistance to predominantly Muslim populations.
This lacking Western attention thus provides a credible justification for the Turkish government to fill the gap and focus on Muslim populations affected by war and disaster.
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On the one hand, the Turkish government repeatedly commits to humanitarian coordination. It values coordination in terms of efficiency, the avoidance of duplication, and mutual learning. The humanitarian response to the Syrian refugee crisis is a case in point. The e-vouchers allow refugees to buy their own food ingredients to cook their meals, instead of receiving cooked meals several times a day.
The e-voucher system is expected to reach , refugees. So we cannot attend the meetings. To begin with, the government lacks the capacity to simultaneously deliver and deliberate aid. Finally, many Turkish humanitarian actors on the ground do not speak English, which is the language of most international coordination meetings. Although joining the ranks of the United States, Europe, and the United Kingdom in humanitarian donorship, Turkey remains a regional middle power.
This is not to belittle what Turkey has achieved, but rather to put expectations of Turkey and its aspirations into perspective. The resource question is straightforward and easy to grasp. Given the current level of development within Turkey, it is safe to assume that an economic decline would immediately affect the scope of Turkish humanitarian donorship.
Shaping the Humanitarian World - Peter Walker, Daniel G. Maxwell - Google книги
However, we have also seen that the Turkish public provides a significant proportion of Turkish official humanitarian assistance. It is unlikely that the Turkish government and society will put in a comparable effort with regards to a humanitarian crisis that is geographically and politically more distant.
So should the crisis cease in the coming years, the level of Turkish humanitarian assistance will most likely sink considerably. Current Turkish humanitarian assistance is in a limbo between being institutionalized and remaining dependent on individual actors and their relationships. Pressure on the humanitarian triangle is also to be expected should the AKP lose its absolute majority in the next national elections.
Without an intimate knowledge of the country, it will be difficult to engage with Turkish humanitarian actors effectively.
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Yet, in many ways this knowledge is simply not out there. Two areas in particular are in need of further research. Yet, the operational realities determine good cooperation and coordination between different humanitarian actors. Second, there is little differentiated knowledge out there regarding the nature of Turkish, faith-based organizations. There is a tendency among traditional donors to regard them with suspicion.
Yet the window of opportunity to engage with Turkey so as to institutionalize such engagement might close in the foreseeable future. Turkey and Switzerland were the main two countries offering to host the event. At the same time, having to host the summit — a major international event — pushes the Turkish government to keep humanitarian assistance on the political agenda and continue to institutionalize governmental structures that can both fund humanitarian operations and engage with the international humanitarian community.
CD accessed on 22 August Ankara, October Her areas of expertise include humanitarian assistance with a focus on emerging donors and the political philosophy of humanitarianism, international development, and peace and conflict studies. Peer-reviewed journal that promotes cutting-edge research and policy debates on global development. Published by the Graduate Institute Geneva, it links up with international policy negotiations involving Geneva-based organisations.
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